**What is correlation and causation and in what way are they different?**

Two or more variables considered to be related, during a statistical context, if their values change in order that because the value of 1 variable increases or decreases so does the worth of the opposite variable (although it’s going to be within the opposite direction).

For example, for the 2 variables “hours worked” and “income earned” there’s a relationship between the 2 if the rise in hours worked is related to a rise in income earned. If we consider the 2 variables “price” and “purchasing power”, because the price of products increases an individual’s ability to shop for these goods decreases (assuming a continuing income).

Correlation may be a statistical measure (expressed as a number) that describes the dimensions and direction of a relationship between two or more variables. A correlation between variables, however, doesn’t automatically mean that the change in one variable is that the explanation for the change within the values of the opposite variable.

Causation indicates that one event is that the results of the occurrence of the opposite event; i.e. there’s a causal relationship between the 2 events. This is often also mentioned as cause and effect.

Theoretically, the difference between the 2 sorts of relationships are easy to spot — an action or occurrence can cause another (e.g. smoking causes a rise within the risk of developing lung cancer), or it can correlate with another (e.g. smoking is correlated with alcoholism, but it doesn’t cause alcoholism). In practice, however, it remains difficult to obviously establish cause and effect, compared with establishing correlation.

## Why are correlation and causation important?

The objective of much research or scientific analysis is to spot the extent to which one variable relates to a different variable. For example:

Is there a relationship between an individual’s education level and their health?

Is pet ownership related to living longer?

Did a company’s marketing campaign increase their product sales?

These and other questions are exploring whether a correlation exists between the 2 variables, and if there’s a correlation then this might guide further research into investigating whether one action causes the opposite . By understanding correlation and causality, it allows for policies and programs that aim to cause a desired outcome to be better targeted.

## How is correlation measured?

For two variables, a statistical correlation is measured by the utilization of a coefficient of correlation, represented by the symbol (r), which may be a single number that describes the degree of relationship between two variables.

The coefficient’s numerical value ranges from +1.0 to –1.0, which provides a sign of the strength and direction of the connection.

If the coefficient of correlation features a negative value (below 0) it indicates a negative relationship between the variables. This suggests that the variables move in opposite directions (ie when one increases the opposite decreases, or when one decreases the opposite increases).

If the coefficient of correlation features a positive value (above 0) it indicates a positive relationship between the variables meaning that both variables move in tandem, i.e. together variable decreases the opposite also decreases, or when one variable increases the opposite also increases.

Where the coefficient of correlation is 0 this means there’s no relationship between the variables (one variable can remain constant while the opposite increases or decreases).

While the coefficient of correlation may be a useful measure, it’s its limitations:

Correlation coefficients are usually related to measuring a linear relationship.

For example, if you compare hours worked and income earned for a tradesperson who charges an hourly rate for his or her work, there’s a linear (or straight line) relationship since with each additional hour worked the income will increase by a uniform amount.

If, however, the tradesperson charges supported an initial call out fee and an hourly fee which progressively decreases the longer the work goes for, the connection between hours worked and income would be non-linear, where the coefficient of correlation could also be closer to 0.

Care is required when interpreting the worth of ‘r’. It’s possible to seek out correlations between many variables, however the relationships are often thanks to other factors and don’t have anything to try to with the 2 variables being considered.

For example, sales of ice creams and therefore the sales of sunscreen can increase and reduce across a year during a systematic manner, but it might be a relationship that might flow from to the consequences of the season (ie hotter weather sees a rise in people wearing sunscreen also as eating frozen dessert ) instead of thanks to any direct relationship between sales of sunscreen and ice cream.

The coefficient of correlation shouldn’t be wont to say anything about cause and effect relationship. By examining the worth of ‘r’, we may conclude that two variables are related, but that ‘r’ value doesn’t tell us if one variable was the explanation for the change within the other.

## How can causation be established?

Causality is that the area of statistics that’s commonly misunderstood and misused by people within the mistaken belief that because the info shows a correlation that there’s necessarily an underlying causal relationship .

The use of a controlled study is that the best way of building causality between variables. during a controlled study, the sample or population is split in two, with both groups being comparable in almost every way. The 2 groups then receive different treatments, and therefore the outcomes of every group are assessed.

For example, in medical research, one group may receive a placebo while the opposite group is given a replacement sort of medication. If the 2 groups have noticeably different outcomes, the various experiences may have caused the various outcomes.

Due to ethical reasons, there are limits to the utilization of controlled studie

What is correlation and causation and the way are they different?

Two or more variables considered to be related, during a statistical context, if their values change in order that because the value of 1 variable increases or decreases so does the worth of the opposite variable (although it’s going to be within the opposite direction).

For example, for the 2 variables “hours worked” and “income earned” there’s a relationship between the 2 if the rise in hours worked is related to a rise in income earned. If we consider the 2 variables “price” and “purchasing power”, because the price of products increases an individual’s ability to shop for these goods decreases (assuming a continuing income).

Correlation may be a statistical measure (expressed as a number) that describes the dimensions and direction of a relationship between two or more variables. A correlation between variables, however, doesn’t automatically mean that the change in one variable is that the explanation for the change within the values of the opposite variable.

Causation indicates that one event is that the results of the occurrence of the opposite event; i.e. there’s a causal relationship between the 2 events. This is often also mentioned as cause and effect.

Theoretically, the difference between the 2 sorts of relationships are easy to spot — an action or occurrence can cause another (e.g. smoking causes a rise within the risk of developing lung cancer), or it can correlate with another (e.g. smoking is correlated with alcoholism, but it doesn’t cause alcoholism). In practice, however, it remains difficult to obviously establish cause and effect, compared with establishing correlation.

Why are correlation and causation important?

The objective of much research or scientific analysis is to spot the extent to which one variable relates to a different variable. For example:

Is there a relationship between an individual’s education level and their health?

Is pet ownership related to living longer?

Did a company’s marketing campaign increase their product sales?

These and other questions are exploring whether a correlation exists between the 2 variables, and if there’s a correlation then this might guide further research into investigating whether one action causes the opposite . By understanding correlation and causality, it allows for policies and programs that aim to cause a desired outcome to be better targeted.

## How is correlation measured?

For two variables, a statistical correlation is measured by the utilization of a coefficient of correlation, represented by the symbol (r), which may be a single number that describes the degree of relationship between two variables.

The coefficient’s numerical value ranges from +1.0 to –1.0, which provides a sign of the strength and direction of the connection .

If the coefficient of correlation features a negative value (below 0) it indicates a negative relationship between the variables. this suggests that the variables move in opposite directions (ie when one increases the opposite decreases, or when one decreases the opposite increases).

If the coefficient of correlation features a positive value (above 0) it indicates a positive relationship between the variables meaning that both variables move in tandem, i.e. together variable decreases the opposite also decreases, or when one variable increases the opposite also increases.

Where the coefficient of correlation is 0 this means there’s no relationship between the variables (one variable can remain constant while the opposite increases or decreases).

While the coefficient of correlation may be a useful measure, it’s its limitations:

Correlation coefficients are usually related to measuring a linear relationship.

For example, if you compare hours worked and income earned for a tradesperson who charges an hourly rate for his or her work, there’s a linear (or straight line) relationship since with each additional hour worked the income will increase by a uniform amount.

If, however, the tradesperson charges supported an initial call out fee and an hourly fee which progressively decreases the longer the work goes for, the connection between hours worked and income would be non-linear, where the coefficient of correlation could also be closer to 0.

Care is required when interpreting the worth of ‘r’. it’s possible to seek out correlations between many variables, however the relationships are often thanks to other factors and don’t have anything to try to to with the 2 variables being considered.

For example, sales of ice creams and therefore the sales of sunscreen can increase and reduce across a year during a systematic manner, but it might be a relationship that might flow from to the consequences of the season (ie hotter weather sees a rise in people wearing sunscreen also as eating frozen dessert ) instead of thanks to any direct relationship between sales of sunscreen and ice cream.

The coefficient of correlation shouldn’t be wont to say anything about cause and effect relationship. By examining the worth of ‘r’, we may conclude that two variables are related, but that ‘r’ value doesn’t tell us if one variable was the explanation for the change within the other.

## How can causation be established?

Causality is that the area of statistics that’s commonly misunderstood and misused by people within the mistaken belief that because the info shows a correlation that there’s necessarily an underlying causal relationship.

The use of a controlled study is that the best way of building causality between variables. during a controlled study, the sample or population is split in two, with both groups being comparable in almost every way. The 2 groups then receive different treatments, and therefore the outcomes of every group are assessed.

For example, in medical research, one group may receive a placebo while the opposite group is given a replacement sort of medication. If the 2 groups have noticeably different outcomes, the various experiences may have caused the various outcomes.

Due to ethical reasons, there are limits to the utilization of controlled studies; it might not be appropriate to use two comparable groups and have one among them undergo a harmful activity while the opposite doesn’t . To beat this example , observational studies are often wont to investigate correlation and causation for the population of interest. The studies can check out the groups’ behaviors and outcomes and observe any changes over time.